On Sun, 16 Jul 2017 21:33:00 +0000 (UTC), gary
Post by gary
So, how many acid attacks are there in London?
About 700 an hour. But Sweden has about 3 billion a day
according to Daily Caller. And that's only when the muzzies
aren't raping babies and chasing around the white men.
How many lunatic gun massacres are there in the US?
None! Because we all have guns and they're afraid of getting
shot. There'd be even less if our ancestors weren't so damn lazy
that they needed to import black people to do all their work for
free while they sat back sipping mint juleps and giving them a
good whippin if they mouthed off.
So you ancestors are black? You do know that the biggest slave
holders and slave dealers in America...were free blacks...right?
According to federal census reports, on June 1, 1860 there were nearly
4.5 million Negroes in the United States, with fewer than four million
of them living in the southern slaveholding states. Of the blacks
residing in the South, 261,988 were not slaves. Of this number, 10,689
lived in New Orleans. The country's leading African American
historian, Duke University professor John Hope Franklin, records that
in New Orleans over 3,000 free Negroes owned slaves, or 28 percent of
the free Negroes in that city.
To return to the census figures quoted above, this 28 percent is
certainly impressive when compared to less than 1.4 percent of all
American whites and less than 4.8 percent of southern whites. The
statistics show that, when free, blacks disproportionately became
The majority of slaveholders, white and black, owned only one to five
slaves. More often than not, and contrary to a century and a half of
bullwhips-on-tortured-backs propaganda, black and white masters worked
and ate alongside their charges; be it in house, field or workshop.
The few individuals who owned 50 or more slaves were confined to the
top one percent, and have been defined as slave magnates.
In 1860 there were at least six Negroes in Louisiana who owned 65 or
more slaves The largest number, 152 slaves, were owned by the widow C.
Richards and her son P.C. Richards, who owned a large sugar cane
plantation. Another Negro slave magnate in Louisiana, with over 100
slaves, was Antoine Dubuclet, a sugar planter whose estate was valued
at (in 1860 dollars) $264,000 (3). That year, the mean wealth of
southern white men was $3,978 (4).
In Charleston, South Carolina in 1860 125 free Negroes owned slaves;
six of them owning 10 or more. Of the $1.5 million in taxable property
owned by free Negroes in Charleston, more than $300,000 represented
slave holdings (5). In North Carolina 69 free Negroes were slave
In 1860 William Ellison was South Carolina's largest Negro slaveowner.
In Black Masters. A Free Family of Color in the Old South, authors
Michael P. Johnson and James L. Roak write a sympathetic account of
Ellison's life. From Ellison's birth as a slave to his death at 71,
the authors attempt to provide justification, based on their own
speculation, as to why a former slave would become a magnate slave
At birth he was given the name April. A common practice among slaves
of the period was to name a child after the day or month of his or her
birth. Between 1800 and 1802 April was purchased by a white
slave-owner named William Ellison. Apprenticed at 12, he was taught
the trades of carpentry, blacksmithing and machining, as well as how
to read, write, cipher and do basic bookkeeping.
On June 8, 1816, William Ellison appeared before a magistrate (with
five local freeholders as supporting witnesses) to gain permission to
free April, now 26 years of age. In 1800 the South Carolina
legislature had set out in detail the procedures for manumission. To
end the practice of freeing unruly slaves of "bad or depraved"
character and those who "from age or infirmity" were incapacitated,
the state required that an owner testify under oath to the good
character of the slave he sought to free. Also required was evidence
of the slave's "ability to gain a livelihood in an honest way."
Although lawmakers of the time could not envision the incredibly vast
public welfare structures of a later age, these stipulations became
law in order to prevent slaveholders from freeing individuals who
would become a burden on the general public.
Interestingly, considering today's accounts of life under slavery,
authors Johnson and Roak report instances where free Negroes
petitioned to be allowed to become slaves; this because they were
unable to support themselves.
Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia (University
Press of Virginia-1995) was written by Ervin L. Jordan Jr., an
African-American and assistant professor and associate curator of the
Special Collections Department, University of Virginia library. He
wrote: "One of the more curious aspects of the free black existence in
Virginia was their ownership of slaves. Black slave masters owned
members of their family and freed them in their wills. Free blacks
were encouraged to sell themselves into slavery and had the right to
choose their owner through a lengthy court procedure."
In 1816, shortly after his manumission, April moved to Stateburg.
Initially he hired slave workers from local owners. When in 1817 he
built a gin for Judge Thomas Watries, he credited the judge nine
dollars "for hire of carpenter George for 12 days." By 1820 he had
purchased two adult males to work in his shop (7). In fewer than four
years after being freed, April demonstrated that he had no problem
perpetuating an institution he had been released from. He also
achieved greater monetary success than most white people of the
On June 20, 1820, April appeared in the Sumter District courthouse in
Sumterville. Described in court papers submitted by his attorney as a
"freed yellow man of about 29 years of age," he requested a name
change because it "would yet greatly advance his interest as a
tradesman." A new name would also "save him and his children from
degradation and contempt which the minds of some do and will attach to
the name April." Because "of the kindness" of his former master and as
a "Mark of gratitude and respect for him" April asked that his name be
changed to William Ellison. His request was granted.
In time the black Ellison family joined the predominantly white
Episcopalian church. On August 6, 1824 he was allowed to put a family
bench on the first floor, among those of the wealthy white families.
Other blacks, free and slave, and poor whites sat in the balcony.
Another wealthy Negro family would later join the first floor
Between 1822 and the mid-1840s, Ellison gradually built a small
empire, acquiring slaves in increasing numbers. He became one of South
Carolina's major cotton gin manufacturers, selling his machines as far
away as Mississippi. From February 1817 until the War Between the
States commenced, his business advertisements appeared regularly in
newspapers across the state. These included the Camden Gazette, the
Sumter Southern Whig and the Black River Watchman.
Ellison was so successful, due to his utilization of cheap slave
labor, that many white competitors went out of business. Such
situations discredit impressions that whites dealt only with other
whites. Where money was involved, it was apparent that neither
Ellison's race or former status were considerations.
In his book, Ervin L. Jordan Jr. writes that, as the great
conflagration of 1861-1865 approached: "Free Afro-Virginians were a
nascent black middle class under siege, but several acquired property
before and during the war. Approximately 169 free blacks owned 145,976
acres in the counties of Amelia, Amherst, Isle of Wight, Nansemond,
Prince William and Surry, averaging 870 acres each. Twenty-rune
Petersburg blacks each owned property worth $1,000 and continued to
purchase more despite the war."
Jordan offers an example: "Gilbert Hunt, a Richmond ex-slave
blacksmith, owned two slaves, a house valued at $1,376, and $500 in
other properties at his death in 1863." Jordan wrote that "some free
black residents of Hampton and Norfolk owned property of considerable
value; 17 black Hamptonians possessed property worth a total of
$15,000. Thirty-six black men paid taxes as heads of families in
Elizabeth City County and were employed as blacksmiths, bricklayers,
fishermen, oystermen and day laborers. In three Norfolk County
parishes 160 blacks owned a total of $41,158 in real estate and
The general practice of the period was that plantation owners would
buy seed and equip ment on credit and settle their outstanding
accounts when the annual cotton crop was sold. Ellison, like all free
Negroes, could resort to the courts for enforcement of the terms of
contract agreements. Several times Ellison successfully sued white men
for money owed him.
In 1838 Ellison purchased on time 54.5 acres adjoining his original
acreage from one Stephen D. Miller. He moved into a large home on the
property. What made the acquisition notable was that Miller had served
in the South Carolina legislature, both in the U.S. House of
Representatives and the Senate, and while a resident of Stateburg had
been governor of the state. Ellison's next door neighbor was Dr. W.W.
Anderson, master of "Borough House, a magnificent 18th Century
mansion. Anderson's son would win fame in the War Between the States
as General "Fighting Dick" Anderson.
By 1847 Ellison owned over 350 acres, and more than 900 by 1860. He
raised mostly cotton, with a small acreage set aside for cultivating
foodstuffs to feed his family and slaves. In 1840 he owned 30 slaves,
and by 1860 he owned 63. His sons, who lived in homes on the property,
owned an additional nine slaves. They were trained as gin makers by
their father (8). They had spent time in Canada, where many wealthy
American Negroes of the period sent their children for advanced formal
education. Ellison's sons and daughters married mulattos from
Charleston, bringing them to the Ellison plantation to live.
In 1860 Ellison greatly underestimated his worth to tax assessors at
$65,000. Even using this falsely stated figure, this man who had been
a slave 44 years earlier had achieved great financial success. His
wealth outdistanced 90 percent of his white neighbors in Sumter
District. In the entire state, only five percent owned as much real
estate as Ellison. His wealth was 15 times greater than that of the
state's average for whites. And Ellison owned more slaves than 99
percent of the South's slaveholders.
Although a successful businessman and cotton farmer, Ellison's major
source of income derived from being a "slave breeder." Slave breeding
was looked upon with disgust throughout the South, and the laws of
most southern states forbade the sale of slaves under the age of 12.
In several states it was illegal to sell inherited slaves (9).
Nevertheless, in 1840 Ellison secretly began slave breeding.
While there was subsequent investment return in raising and keeping
young males, females were not productive workers in his factory or his
cotton fields. As a result, except for a few females he raised to
become "breeders," Ellison sold the female and many of the male
children born to his female slaves at an average price of $400.
Ellison had a reputation as a harsh master. His slaves were said to be
the district's worst fed and clothed. On his property was located a
small, windowless building where he would chain his problem slaves.
As with the slaves of his white counterparts, occasionally Ellison's
slaves ran away. The historians of Sumter District reported that from
time to time Ellison advertised for the return of his runaways. On at
least one occasion Ellison hired the services of a slave catcher.
According to an account by Robert N. Andrews, a white man who had
purchased a small hotel in Stateburg in the 1820s, Ellison hired him
to run down "a valuable slave. Andrews caught the slave in Belleville,
Virginia. He stated: "I was paid on returning home $77.50 and $74 for
William Ellison died December 5, 1861. His will stated that his estate
should pass into the joint hands of his free daughter and his two
surviving sons. He bequeathed $500 to the slave daughter he had sold.
Following in their father's footsteps, the Ellison family actively
supported the Confederacy throughout the war. They converted nearly
their entire plantation to the production of corn, fodder, bacon, corn
shucks and cotton for the Confederate armies. They paid $5,000 in
taxes during the war. They also invested more than $9,000 in
Confederate bonds, treasury notes and certificates in addition to the
Confederate currency they held. At the end, all this valuable paper
The younger Ellisons contributed more than farm produce, labor and
money to the Confederate cause. On March 27, 1863 John Wilson Buckner,
William Ellison's oldest grandson, enlisted in the 1st South Carolina
Artillery. Buckner served in the company of Captains P.P. Galliard and
A.H. Boykin, local white men who knew that Buckner was a Negro.
Although it was illegal at the time for a Negro to formally join the
Confederate forces, the Ellison family's prestige nullified the law in
the minds of Buckner's comrades. Buckner was wounded in action on July
12, 1863. At his funeral in Stateburg in August, 1895 he was praised
by his former Confederate officers as being a "faithful soldier."
Following the war the Ellison family fortune quickly dwindled. But
many former Negro slave magnates quickly took advantage of
circumstances and benefited by virtue of their race. For example
Antoine Dubuclet, the previously mentioned New Orleans plantation
owner who held more than 100 slaves, became Louisiana state treasurer
during Reconstruction, a post he held from 1868 to 1877 (10).
A truer picture of the Old South, one never presented by the nation's
mind molders, emerges from this account. The American South had been
undergoing structural evolutionary changes far, far greater than
generations of Americans have been led to believe. In time, within a
relatively short time, the obsolete and economically nonviable
institution of slavery would have disappeared. The nation would have
been spared awesome traumas from which it would never fully recover.
And of course..my people were both slave holders and slaves.
Btw...I fixed the trollish behavior you exhibited and corrected the
Newsgroups: this was supposed to be sent to.
You exhibit the same mental illness that most Democrat
Liberals/Progressives/Socialists/Marxists show daily.
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